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For fans of military history, the adjoining Museum of Military History includes weapons, uniforms, flags, and artwork.
Behind the Matthias Church, at the exact spot where the local fishermen's guild built their defense installations in the Middle Ages, is the spectacular Fisherman's Bastion.
Built in the 13th century, the first castle was located on the south spur of Castle Hill to provide protection from attacks by Mongols and Tartars.
The current incarnation of Buda Castle (sometimes called the Castle Palace) is a massive 18th-century Neo-Baroque-style structure of more than 200 rooms.
Several other noteworthy buildings are grouped around the square, including the old Town Hall of Buda, a magnificent building erected at the end of the 17th century from plans by Italian architect Ceresola.
Like much of Budapest, it's a great area to explore after nightfall, when it's lit up in spectacular fashion.
And for adventurous night owls, the castle courtyards remain open 24 hours a day.
Be sure to also take a trip on the fully restored historic Castle Funicular Railway, which departs from the Buda end of the Chain Bridge.
This entire historic landmark is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Hungarian National Gallery is housed in the main wing of Buda Castle facing the Danube.